In 1669, Nicolaus Steno made the first clear statement that stratified rocks have sequential changes, that is, rocks have a history. Through his work in the mountains of western Italy, Steno realized that the principle of layering in stratified rocks was the key to connecting time to rocks. In short, each layer of sedimentary rock (also called âbedâ) is older than those above and younger than those below. Steno`s seemingly simple superposition rule has become the most fundamental principle of relative dating. Steno initially developed his reasoning from observations of sedimentary rocks, but the principle also applies to other materials deposited on the surface, such as lava flows and ash layers from volcanic eruptions. In addition, Steno recognized the importance of another principle, the original horizontality, namely that the layers are always deposited first in almost horizontal positions. Thus, a rock layer folded or inclined at a steep angle must have been brought into this position by disturbances of the Earth`s crust (i.e. orogeny, faults or plate tectonics) some time after its deposition. The main difference between the original principle of horizontality and superposition is that the principle of horizontality states that the layers of sediment in a rock are originally deposited in a horizontal pattern, while the principle of superposition states that the oldest layers are located at the lower line of the rock.
The principle of horizontality and original superposition are important geological concepts that describe the deposition pattern of a rock. In addition, there are three main types of rocks on planet Earth: igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks, and metamorphic rocks. These geological concepts can therefore describe the origin of these types of rocks from observations and forecasts. In addition, the original principle of horizontality states that sedimentary layers (rocks) are originally deposited in a horizontal pattern determined by the action of gravity. In contrast, the superposition principle describes that the oldest layers occur in an undistorted stratigraphic sequence at the bottom of the sequence. From these observations, the conclusion is drawn that the Earth was not static and that large forces were at work for long periods of time, leading to the conclusions of plate tectonics science; that the movements and collisions of large plates of the Earth`s crust are the cause of the folded layers.  The original principle of horizontality explains that the origin of the rock is based on horizontal deposit. In other words, this principle states that sedimentary layers (rocks) are originally deposited in a horizontal pattern determined by the action of gravity. Therefore, we can use this theory as a relative dating technique for rocks.
In addition, we can use this theory mainly for the analysis of bent and inclined layers. In fact, the founder of this principle was the Danish geologist Nicholas Steno. The principle of superposition is a concept in geology that describes patterns in undistorted stratigraphic sequences. In other words, this principle describes that the oldest layers occur in an undistorted stratigraphic sequence at the bottom of the sequence. Thus, it is a way to date rocks relatively. In addition, this theory has applications in geology, archaeology and other fields dealing with geological stratigraphy. Similar to the principle of horizontality, the Danish geologist Nicholas Steno also founded this principle. Figure 1A is a block diagram of horizontal layers or layers. The different colors represent layers or layers of different types of rocks. In a true cross-section or geological map, each layer is color-coded to be a specific type of rock.
We do not specify what types of rocks form the layers in these cartoon diagrams. The arrow “N” indicates the north direction in this diagram. The arrow points north. You can rotate this view in the 3D model to better see the arrow. Moreover, observations concerning the principle of original horizontality have led us to believe that the Earth is not static, because great forces have been exerted on the Earth over a long period of time. In addition, this principle helps us to create theories about plate tectonics, plate motion and collision, etc. The principle of superposition states that in a sequence of otherwise undisturbed layers of sediment or rock layers, the layers at the bottom are the oldest and the layers above them younger. The original horizontality principle states that the origin of rock is based on horizontal deposition, while the superposition principle is a concept in geology that describes patterns in undistorted stratigraphic sequences. The original principle of horizontality states that sedimentary layers are originally deposited horizontally under the action of gravity.  It is a relative dating technique. The principle is important for the analysis of bent and inclined layers. It was first proposed by Danish geological pioneer Nicholas Steno (1638-1686).
Previous: Geological PrinciplesâOrganic Extinction Angular imperfections are represented by an older group of rock layers that have been tilted and eroded, and another younger group of rock layers has been deposited on this erosion surface. The tipping process is usually due to a mountain construction event, it does not necessarily have to be in the mountains, but the effects of mountain construction processes are considerable. Figure 1: Horizontal diagram of rock formation by material deposition Rocks containing fossils occur in a very real and understandable order. Rocks from certain periods can be identified and separated based on their fossil content (Boggs 2012). It`s a skill geologists learn when they do fieldwork and explore the Earth! The fauna of the Mississippian is very different from the Ordovician and is easy to distinguish! Groups of fossils or assemblages of fossils can be used to correlate rock units across continents. The original principle of horizontality states that rock layers deposited from above, such as sediments and lava flows, are originally deposited horizontally. The law of lateral continuity suggests that all rock layers are laterally continuous and can be broken or displaced by subsequent events. This can happen when a river or stream erodes certain rock layers. This can also happen if errors occur.
Faults cause displacement in rock units. The figure here shows the offset between the layers, indicated by the black line that intersects above the rocks. Draw the colors or letters to find matching layers. The rock layers at the top seem to form a valley, but we can say that unit I (dark blue) on one side is the same as unit I (dark blue) on the other. In between, rock is missing and deformation by deformation. As one of the laws of steno, the original principle of horizontality served well in the early days of geological science.  However, it is now known that not all sediment layers are deposited purely horizontally.